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Lowell Chemistry Final Exam Study Guide — Spring 2008

The final exam will consist of 85 multiple choice questions.

Note: Programmable and graphing calculators may be used if there are no formulas or data that will help you with this final exam. You may use a 3-inch x 5-inch handwritten note card (written on both sides OK = 30 square inches of surface area maximum).

This may not be a complete listing of what we have covered this semester. Please refer to your book, notes, labs, homeworks, etc. to verify. If there is something that is not listed but we covered, please let me know and I will add it to this list, as it may show up on the exam.

+ indicates mathematical problems using these equations/concepts may also show up

CHAPTERS COVERED DURING SPRING 2008 SEMESTER:

(from Zuhdahl World of Chemistry 2002 – published by McDougal Littell)

·  Chapter 10 (Energy)

thermodynamics

heat vs. temperature

specific heat capacity

calculating thermal energy based on specific heat capacity (Q=smΔT) +

calorimetry

enthalpy ΔH (Is a reaction endothermic or exothermic?) +

entropy ΔS (Is a reaction increasing or decreasing in disorder?) +

Gibbs free energy ΔG (how to determine if a reaction is spontaneous) +

·  Chapter 11 (Electrons in Atoms)

molecule depictions (Lewis dot, space-filling, ball-and-stick, etc.)

intermolecular forces (hydrogen bonds, van der Waal forces, dispersion forces)

quantum numbers

orbital types (11.7)

the different models of the atom

internal structure of an atom

electron configurations and orbital types

how to relate atomic number and mass number +

how to figure out the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons +

isotopes

·  Chapter 12 (Chemical Bonding)

ionic vs. covalent bonds (12.1)

dipoles and molecular polarity + (12.3)

octet rule and exceptions to the octet rule  (12.6-12.7)

resonance (12.7)

shapes of molecules + (12.8)

VSEPR (12.9)

·  Chapter 14 (States of Matter and Intermolecular Forces)

kinetic molecular theory for liquids and solids

how solids, liquids, and gases compare and contrast

types of intermolecular forces (e.g. dipole-dipole, etc.)

phase changes (including the figure showing the phase changes of H2O)

endothermic vs. exothermic

phase diagrams +

heating curves vs. cooling curves +

 properties of liquids (e.g. surface tension, density, specific heat capacity, etc.)

structure and properties of solids, e.g. the differences between metallic and covalent solids, and molecular and ionic solids

·  Chapter 15 (Solutions)        

solutions (solvent vs. solute)

homogeneous vs. heterogeneous mixtures

solubility

factors affecting solubility

precipitates (when will they occur?) +

writing ionic equations (by using solubility rules)

molality (moles of solute per kilogram of solvent) +

colligative properties

boiling point elevation vs. freezing point depression

·  Chapter 16 (Acids and Bases)

definitions of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, Lewis) (16.1)

bases and their conjugate acids (16.1)

acids and their conjugate bases (16.1)

strong vs. weak (when describing acids and bases) (16.2)

difference between strong acid and high concentration (16.2)

[H+] and [OH-] of acidic, neutral, and basic solutions + (16.3)

calculate molarity + (16.3)

molarity vs. molality vs. mole fraction vs. mass percent (see notes)

calculate pH and pOH of strong/weak   acids/bases + (16.4)

pH and pOH of acidic, neutral, and basic solutions + (16.4)

Ka and Kb are only used for weak acids / bases (see notes)

equilibrium in solutions of weak acids and bases (see notes)

acid-base titration calculations +  (16.7)

how to carry out a titration (16.7)

neutralization reactions (16.7)

acid-base indicators (16.5)

buffer solutions (16.8)

calculate the pH of a buffer solution (using Henderson-Hasselbalch) + (see notes)

·  Chapter 17 (Reaction Rates and Equilibrium)

reaction rates (17.2)

factors affect reaction rates (17.2)

effect of catalysts on the rate of a reaction and activation energy

interpret a reaction’s energy curve diagram

homogeneous vs. heterogeneous reactions (17.3)

equilibrium (17.4)

Le Chatelier’s principle (how it affects the equilibrium of a system) + (17.8)

Keq (equilibrium constant) + (17.6)

Ksp (solubility product constant) + (17.10)

·  Chapter 18 (Electrochemistry)

potential difference Eo (how to determine if a reaction is spontaneous) +

oxidation vs. reduction + (18.1)

cathode vs. anode (18.5)

reducing agent vs. oxidizing agent (18.3)

how electrochemical cells work

·  Chapter 19 (Nuclear Chemistry)

radiation and radioactivity (19.1)

4 types of emission: alpha, beta, positron, and gamma + (19.1)

how to relate atomic number and mass number + (p. 607)

how to figure out the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons + (p.607)

half-life (19.3)

radioactive dating (19.4)

nuclear transformation

nuclear fusion vs. fission (19.7-19.8)

·  Chapter 20 (Organic Chemistry)

naming straight-chained and branched hydrocarbons (20.2-20.3)

alkanes vs. alkenes vs. alkynes (20.4, 20.7)

isomers (20.3)

identify organic molecules based on functional group (most of chapter)

types of functional groups (20.10)

write structural formulas of organic molecules given the formula and/or type + (see notes)

aromatic compounds (20.8)

polymers (20.7)

The material on the final is not limited to the concepts listed above. The exam may include material from the fall semester. If you have any questions, please feel free to e-mail me or stop by Science Dept. Office (Room 234).

FINAL EXAM SCHEDULE:

Mods 1-3: Tuesday, June 10, 2008, 8:30-10:20 AM

Mods 11-13: Monday, June 9, 2008, 1:30 – 3:20 PM

Mods 13-15: Friday, June 6, 2008, 10:50 AM – 12:40 PM

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