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Midterm Study Guide

Chemistry Honors (Fall 2009)

Note #1: The midterm will consist of 25 multiple choice questions. You will receive an AP Chemistry exam periodic table, but no AP Chem formula sheet. Simple scientific calculators are allowed, no graphing or programmable.

Note #2: This may not be a complete listing of what we have covered so far this semester. Please refer to your book, notes, labs, homeworks, etc. to verify. If there is something that is not listed but we covered, please let me know and I will add it to this list, as it may show up on the midterm.

+ indicates mathematical problems using these equations/concepts may also show up

CHAPTERS COVERED DURING FALL 2009 SEMESTER:

(from Zumdahl Chemistry, 7th Edition 2007)

·  Chapter 1 (Chemical Foundations)

–        what chemistry is

–        scientific method

–        homogeneous vs. heterogeneous mixtures

–        density +

–        be able to graph and interpret data properly on x- and y-axes +

–        properties of matter

–        physical properties vs. chemical properties

–        physical changes vs. chemical changes

–        metric conversions (know the prefixes)

–        precision vs. accuracy

·  Chapter 2 (Atoms, Molecules, and Ions)

–        law of definite composition +

–        atoms vs. molecules vs. ions vs. elements

–        how to figure out atomic number, atomic mass, etc. from the periodic table +

–        the 3 types of subatomic particles in an atom

–        how to figure out ionic charge from the periodic table

–        diatomic molecules (e.g. H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2)

–        cations vs. anions

–        know the formulas and charges of cations and anions

–        covalent vs. ionic bonding

–        how to write chemical formulas of binary molecular compounds (covalent) +

–        polyatomic ions

–        how to write chemical formulas of ionic compounds (by balancing charges of the cation and anion within the compound) +

–        how to name oxyacids +

·  Chapter 3 (Stoichiometry)

–        law of conservation of mass (and atoms) + / law of conservation of matter

–        how to write chemical equations

–        the symbols used to write chemical equations

–        balance chemical equations +

–        categorize types of chemical reactions (e.g. combustion, double-replacement, etc.)

–        the mole (how it relates to Avogadro’s number) +

–        molar mass  +

–        how to find concentration in molarity (moles per unit volume) +

–        empirical formula vs. molecular formula +

–        mass percent composition  +

–        be able to predict products of chemical reactions based on reaction type converting from moles to mass (in grams) +

–        converting from mass (in grams) to moles  +

–        determining mole-to-mole ratios between reactants and/or products of a chemical equation +

–        identifying limiting reagents / determining how much of a reactant is in excess +

–        determining the theoretical yield of products (in grams or moles) +

–        determining the percent yield of an experiment +

·  Chapters 4 (Redox / Solution Stoichiometry)

–        strong electrolytes vs. weak electrolytes vs. nonelectrolytes

–        Arrhenius acids and bases +

–        ion concentration in solutions +

–        identify strong acids and bases, weak acids and bases

–        ionic equation vs. net ionic equations

–        titrations

–        factors affecting solubility

–        solubility rules +

–        predicting products of chemical reactions

–        precipitation reactions (will a reaction occur?) +

–        using the activity series of metals (will a reaction occur?) +

–        oxidation vs. reduction / reducing agents vs. oxidizing agents +

–        cathode vs. anode

–        oxidation numbers +

–        identifying redox reactions

–        balancing redox equations  +

·  Chapter 5 (Gases)

–        properties of gases

–        kinetic molecular theory for gases

–        ideal gas law (PV=nRT) +

–        ideal gas constant +

–        Charles’s, Boyle’s, Amonton’s, combined gas laws +

–        gases in reaction stoichiometry (Gay-Lussac) +

–        Dalton’s law of partial pressures +

–        Avogadro’s law +

–        STP (under what conditions and know that 1 mol = 22.4 L at STP) +

–        volume ratios between gases in a reaction +

–        Graham’s law +

–        diffusion vs. effusion

·  Chapter 6 (Thermochemistry)

–        thermodynamics

–        heat vs. temperature

–        specific heat capacity vs. molar heat capacity

–        calculating thermal energy based on specific heat capacity (Q=mc∆T) +

–        calculating thermal energy based on molar heat capacity (Q=nC∆T) +

–        calorimetry

–        calculating enthalpy ∆H (Is a reaction endothermic or exothermic?) +

·  Chapter 7 (Atomic Structure and Periodicity)

–        emission spectrum of a hydrogen atom

–        calculate energy of emission spectrum using Bohr’s energy equation +

–        equations related to calculating wavelength, frequency, energy +

–        calculate de Broglie wavelength +

–        the range of visible light colors in order

–        the range of rays and waves on the electromagnetic spectrum in order

–        misconceptions about the Bohr atom

–        internal structure of an atom – quantum mechanical model

–        electron configurations

–        quantum numbers

–        orbital types

–        periodic trends

·

If you have any questions, please feel free to e-mail me or stop by our classroom.

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